Bone is a rigid organ which holds the whole body together. It comes in all sizes and shapes and performs numerous roles. It is not just a mechanical or locomotive organ but an endocrine organ as well. Bones support and guard many body organs, store minerals, produce white and red blood cells, enable mobility and provide structure for the body. It has been lately discovered that the bone produces a slew of hormones. These may have a role in controlling body weight, blood sugar, lipids, inflammation, stress, and so on. Bones are made up of with the protein collagen which forms a soft framework and minerals such as calcium and phosphate hardens this soft framework. More than 99 % of calcium stores in the body are found in teeth and bones.
The structural integrity of the bone can be weakened due to certain disorders including the ageing process. Disorders of bone and calcium can result in bone weakening. This is a result of loss of bone mass and bone tissue damage. Bone and calcium disorders include irregularities of bone metabolism associated with numerous hormones like; parathyroid hormone (PTH), testosterone, estrogen and other factors like phosphate, magnesium, Vitamin D, calcitonin and fibroblast growth factor-23.
Osteoporosis is the most common seen bone disorder. It is a state where mineral (calcium, phosphate) loss in bone leads to low bone mass resulting in fractures of bones. Common risk factors for osteoporosis are age, estrogen loss in menopausal women or testosterone loss in men, steroid medication, chronic kidney disease, vitamin D deficiency and hyperparathyroidism. Parathyroid disorders can lead to the abnormalities in the blood calcium levels which can cause fatigue, kidney stones, brittle bones (osteoporosis), weakness and much more.
In a nutshell, bones are more than the protective scaffold where the whole body is built. It maintains appropriate levels of various minerals and controls numerous hormonal pathways.